NASA’s Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction
(MAP) program funds research efforts focused on the study of the Earth’s
climate and weather, with particular emphasis on global change. To understand
fully how and why the Earth climate is changing and the potential long-term
implications requires research efforts to be focused upon end-to-end
Earth system science. Exploration of interactions between the oceans,
the atmosphere, the cryosphere, and the biosphere is accomplished through
space-based and in situ observations and through the application of numerical
models. In 2005 the MAP program awarded funding for 65 investigations
focused on high-priority science areas, including integration of satellite
observations with global models to evaluate model development, test the
value of specific observations, and consider new observation concepts,
with emphasis on addressing the following questions:
- How is global precipitation, evaporation, and the cycling
of water changing?
- How is the global ocean circulation varying on interannual,
decadal, and longer time scales?
- What trends in atmospheric constituents and solar radiation
are driving global climate?
- What are the effects of clouds and surface hydrologic processes
on Earth's climate?
- What are the effects of regional pollution on the global atmosphere,
and the effects of global chemical and climate changes
on regional air quality?
- How can weather forecast duration and reliability be improved?
- How can predictions of climate variability and change be improved?
- How well can transient climate variations be understood and
- How well can long-term climatic trends be assessed or predicted?
- How well can future atmospheric chemical impacts on ozone
and climate be predicted?
The development of consistent, coupled Earth system models is a major
goal of the MAP program. Validation of a wide range of Earth
observations, with particular emphasis of NASA's satellite data program,
is also a priority. In order to assist investigators with the challenging
task of developing, integrating, and maintaining complex numerical modeling
software, the MAP program is requiring compliance with the
US multiagency Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF; http://www.esmf.ucar.edu/
). The program is providing resources through the
NASA Goddard Software Integration & Visualization
Office (SIVO) to assist investigators with the adaptation of ESMF
into their numerical models.
Large investigations include the Global
Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), the
Global Modeling Initiative (GMI), the Goddard
Institute for Space Studies (GISS), support for the ESMF core development team, a Cloud
Modeling and Analysis Initiative (CMAI), along with many other smaller-scale
research efforts in data assimilation to support global model evaluation
and testing. The total funding for these investigations, over a period
of 5 years, is approximately $150 million. Investigators and collaborators
represent more than 17 states and the District of Columbia.
+ US Climate Change Science Program
+ Climate Variability and
Change Focus Area presentation (pdf, 5.5 MB)